Audi A4 with 2001- 2005 of release.
1. Operation and car maintenance service
2. The engine
3. Transmission
4. A running gear
4.1. Wheels and tyres
4.1.1. The general information on wheels and tyres
4.1.2. Specifications for re-equipment of disks and tyres
4.1.3. Indexes of speed of tyres
4.1.4. Marks on disks
4.1.5. Compound disks
4.1.6. Deterioration and ходимость tyres
4.1.7. Deterioration of high-speed tyres
4.1.8. Service of tyres
4.1.9. In regular intervals worn out tyres
4.1.10. Measurement of height of drawing of a protector
4.1.11. Unilateral deterioration
4.1.12. Diagonal non-uniform deterioration
4.1.13. Noise качения tyres
4.1.14. Balancing
4.1.15. Radial and lateral palpation of wheels and tyres
4.1.16. Check of radial and lateral palpation of a disk with the tyre by means of the indicator of hour type for tyres V.A.G 1435
4.1.17. Minimisation
4.1.18. Lateral withdrawal of the car
4.1.19. Elimination of lateral withdrawal
4.1.20. Damages of tyres
4.1.21. A design of the radial tyre
4.1.22. Loss of pressure of air in tyres
4.1.23. Damages of tyres because of errors at mounting (assembly damages)
4.1.24. Marks sidewallsы tyres
4.1.25. Shift of wheels
4.1.26. Instructions on replacement and installation of wheels
4.1.27. Change of tyres
4.1.28. Removal and installation of the case of the metal gate
4.2. The general data on a car running gear
4.3. Repair of a suspension bracket of forward wheels
4.4. A back suspension bracket
4.5. Tables
5. The steering mechanism
6. Brake system
7. An onboard electric equipment
8. A body
9. Electric equipment schemes


4.1.21. A design of the radial tyre

Fig. 4.20. The Cross-section of the radial tyre: 1 – the protector block; 2 – a protector flute; 3 – a protector; 4 – a nylon bandage; 5 – cord layers; 6 – the board core; 7 – the board amplifier; 8 – protection onboard закраины

Nylon bandage 4, layers of a cord 5, cores of a board 6 and amplifiers of a board 7 base a skeleton. The skeleton is «a bearing element» tyres.

Damages from blows
Camber in sidewallsе specifies tyres in skeleton damage.

Fig. 4.21. Arrival on a border at an acute angle

Typical "originators" of similar damages are, for example, borders at arrival on them at an acute angle (fig. 4.21).
Because of it the skeleton of the so strongly compressed tyre can be damaged.
The tyre skeleton thus is strongly stretched that leads to rupture of separate fibres.
The damage scale depends on speed and a corner of blow, pressure of air in tyres, loadings on an axis and an obstacle kind.

Fig. 4.22. Blow/jamming traces in sidewallsе tyres

Arrival on borders should be avoided.
If to drive on a border all the same it is necessary, through its edge it is necessary to move at an obtuse angle and very slowly.

Fig. 4.23. The tyre with the broken off skeleton, a kind from within

Because of strong blow the skeleton was jammed at onboard закраины and broke off in a contact point (fig. 4.23).

Internal damage of the tyre because of blow (double rupture)

Fig. 4.24. Double rupture

The double rupture which has resulted compression at arrival on a border, is frequently imperceptible outside (fig. 4.24).

4.1.20. Damages of tyres

4.1.22. Loss of pressure of air in tyres